The Caveman, or Neanderthal, was one of the indigenous cavemen found on prehistoric Earth (two million BC) when Arthur and Ford crashed onto the planet on board the Golgafrinchan 'Ark Ship'.

Arthur tried to play Scrabble with this caveman. To Arthur's disappointment, the caveman could not spell "Grunt" and "Agh", and would probably have spelt library "with one R". However, the caveman did manage to spell out "forty-two". This Caveman, as well as all of the others, were slowly killed off by the very presence of the Golgafrinchans, making them the ancestors of modern humans instead, except from in Life, The Universe, and Everything, in the beginning of which it is mentioned that they ended up dying out instead of the cavemen.